Senin, 07 September 2009

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The definition of the creative industries
by Department for Culture, Media and Sport, UK



The creative industries are those industries that are based on individual creativity, skill and talent. They are also those that have the potential to create wealth and jobs through developing intellectual property.

The creative industries include:

• Advertising

• Film and video


• Architecture

• Music


• Art and antiques markets

• Performing arts


• Computer and video games

• Publishing


• Crafts

• Software


• Design

• Television and radio


• Designer fashion

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PENGETAHUAN PRASYARAT PENGELOLA

BIRO PERJALANAN WISATA


Disajikan oleh Drs. Noersal Samad, MA


Banyak Negara-negara di dunia menyebut orang yang bergerak di bidang usaha “Perjalanan Wisata" sebagai “TRAVEL AGENT”. Apa saja yang diusahakan oleh “Travel Agent”.


1. Car hire, both domestic and foreign

2. Foreign car purchase

3. Climate information

4. Wardrobe information-what to wear, how much to take, etc

5. Health regulations

6. Sightseeing services

7. General travel consultation

8. Specific itinerary planning

9. Information on all types of accommodations

10. Delivery of tickets

11. Quotation of fares, rates and other prices

12. Foreign currency and exchange facilities

13. Obtaining passports, visa and sailing permits

14. Arranging transfers between docks, airports and hotels

15. Shopping suggestions

16. Reservations and arrangements for special interest groups – e.g. religious pilgrimages, conventions, hunting and other sporting trips, etc.

17. Travel and baggage insurance

18. Advice on language study and guidebook material


Setelah kita mengetahui sebagian besar aktivitas seorang travel agent, timbul pertanyaan : “Pengetahuan apa saja yang harus dimiliki oleh travel agent agar dia bisa bekerja secara effective dan efficient”?


1. Dia harus mempunyai pengetahuan yang luas dan mendalam mengenai “Ilmu Bumi”. Dia harus mempunyai pengetahuan mengenai :

a. Kota tempat tinggalnya

b. Negaranya sendiri

c. Negara-negara sumber wisatawan yang datang ke Indonesia

d. Negara-negara yang menjadi tujuan perjalanan orang-orang Indonesia

e. Dan Negara-negara lain yang mempunyai masa depan yang bisa diharapkan mengirimkan wisatawan ke Indonesia.

2. Dia harus mengetahui fasilitas dan syarat-syarat penyewaan mobil, bis, taksi, bahkan sewa seekor keledai, gajah ataupun onta, sepeda, rencana perjalanan angkutan laut, darat, danau dan udara beserta tarifnya.

3. Dia harus mampu memberikan saran-saran berkenaan dengan pilihan kamar hotel ( deluxe, first class, atau economy) di manapun di dunia, apakah itu disebut “Japanese style hotel di Osaka, sebuah “castle or villa” di Riviera, “yacht or houseboat accommodation” di Kasmir. Dia harus mengetahui bagaimana cara memperoleh sebuah “Cortez Motor Home” untuk menjelajah U.S. Rockies. Seorang agen perjalanan yang baik akan mengetahui dimana memperolehnya, berapa biayanya, dan yang penting lagi apakah ia akan mendapat KOMISI atau tidak.

4. Dia diharapkan mengetahui bermacam-macam makanan yang dihidangkan di seluruh dunia. Seandainya langganannya menanyakan tentang makanan khas Negara tertentu, harusnya dia mampu menjawabnya dan sekaligus mempengaruhi langganannya untuk pergi ke Negara tersebut. Dan tentu saja imbalannya adalah KOMISI yang akan diperoleh dari pelayanannya.

5. Dia tidak boleh salah memberikan informasi mengenai visa, uang asing, pajak, keterangan kesehatan dan syarat-syarat yang harus dipenuhi sebelum melakukan perjalanan, dalam perjalanan dan sewaktu kembali dari luar negeri. Ingat, kita tidak akan melayani orang Indonesia saja, tetapi juga orang asing yang berada di Indonesia.

6. Dia harus bisa menyarankan :

a. Pakaian apa yang harus dibawa?

b. Apa yang harus dikemaskan dan bagaimana caranya?

c. Apa yang bisa dibeli (pantas dibeli) dan dimana?

d. Bagaimana cara memperoleh tiket-tiket pertunjukan (ballets, operas)

e. Dimana mereka bisa melihat “fashions shows”?

f. Bagaimana caranya memperkenalkan langganan dengan “golf and country clubs”?

g. Bagaimana caranya mengirimkan “bon voyage gifts”?

h. Bagaiman caranya mengadakan pesta, dsb.

7. Dia harus bisa memenuhi keinginan khusus langganannya seperti : snorkeling, fishing, shell-collecting, hunting, stamp-collecting, night clubbing, mate seeking, art loving, food loving orient, dan memberi saran mengenai daerah-daerah tujuan (tempat-tempatnya), biayanya dan perlengkapannya.

8. Dia harus bisa menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan mengenai iklim, cuaca, bahasa dan sejarah dari sesuatu negara, syarat yang harus dipenuhi kalau langganan mau membawa binatang peliharaan (anjing, kucing, burung dsb), dimana mereka bisa memperoleh baby-sitters, sekretaris, dst.

9. Dia harus selalu mengetahui perubahan-perubahan jadual penerbangan, pelayaran atau perjalanan, harga-harga murah (excursion fares, family plans, discount fares, on-season and off-season rates, peak season, affinity and non-affinity group fares).

10. Dia harus memenuhi persyaratan-persyaratan tiket, laporan penjualan dan bermacam-macam tariff.

11. Dia adalah “ a public relation, advertising and legal expert, and sales promotion man. Dan tentu saja semua stafnya harus mempunyai pengetahuan yang lengkap seperti dia pula.


James A. Miller, CTC dan Robert W. McIntosh, Ph.D. dalam buku “UP WITH PROFITS”, Bab I, Halaman 8 menulis :


“Competent, professional travel counseling demands wide travel experiences, sales agency experience. An educational academic background pertaining to the disciplines most relating to travel is also helpful. These disciplines include practical knowledge of the fine arts, such as painting, sculpture, architecture, and music, and history, archeology and physical geography.


A knowledge and practice of Interpersonal psychology is also extremely useful, especially in sales and conducting efficient conversations with clients to bring out their true or complete interest and needs. With good communications and understanding, a travel agent can best offer suggestions for a trip, complementary to the client, which provide important values that would not have been possible without the assistance of the travel counselor”.


Selanjutnya pada Bab I, halaman 5 dalam buku yang sama mereka menulis :


“ In assuming a full travel agency service posture, the travel agent becomes responsible for a vast complex of world travel arrangements for his clients. The skill and knowledge he must acquire, maintain and apply in the sales and arrangement of such travel details become a true measure of the usually enlargement, and in so doing the value to oneself, community, and the overall travel industry becomes proportionately greater in importance and scope.


Successful travel agency management today must be alert, well informed, knowledgeable, and willing to change and improve in order to do the job better.


Successful travel agents sense their responsibility to continually seek to improve their abilities through studies, seminars, meetings, discussions with colleagues, familiarization trips, and not infrequently from client opinions and reports on their experiences. A considerable amount of reading becames a normal agent habit”.


Kalau travel agent harus mempunyai pengetahuan dan pengalaman yang luas, tentu saja karyawannya harus memenuhi syarat-syarat tertentu pula untuk mengimbangi pengetahuan atasannya.


MOTIVASI ORANG MENGADAKAN

PERJALANAN


Mengapa orang mengadakan perjalanan? H.A. maslow dalam bukunya, MOTIVATION and PERSONALITY, berpendapat bahwa orang mengadakan perjalanan karena alasan-alasan kebutuhan (needs) atau keperluan. Dia membagi NEEDS atas :


a. Physiological needs ( kebutuhan akan makanan, air dan udara).

b. The needs for security and safety.

c. The survival needs (needs to belong, to be loved and accepted).

d. The self-actualization of self-realization needs

e. The need to develop ‘one’s own potential

f. The need for aesthetic stimulation

g. The need to create or to build one’s own personality and character.

h. The need for change, divertissement, new scenery and new experiences.


John A. Thomas menulis dalam ASTA Travel News, penerbitan bulan Agustus 1964, halaman 64-65, memberikan 18 motivasi yang menyebabkan orang mengadakan perjalanan :


I. EDUCATION AND CULTURAL MOTIVES

1. To see how people in other countries live, work and play

2. To see particular sights

3. To gain a better understanding of what goes on in the news

4. To attend special events

II. RELAXATION and PLEASURE

5. To get away from everyday routine

6. To have a good time

7. To achieve some more sort of sexual or romantic experience

III. ETHNIC

8. To visit places your family came from

9. To visit places your family, or friends, have gone to

IV. OTHER

10. Weather (for instance to avoid winter)

11. Health ( sun, dry, climate, etc)

12. Sport (to swim, ski, fish or sail )

13. Economy ( inexpensive living)

14. Adventure (new areas, people, experience)

15. One-upsmanship

16. Conformity (mengikuti arus atau mode)

17. To participate in history (ancient temples and ruins, current history)

18. Sociological motives (get to know the world)


PATA melaporkan bahwa orang mengadakan perjalanan karena 12 alasan :

1. warm, friendly people

2. comfortable, accommodations

3. beautiful, natural scenery

4. reasonable prices

5. attractive customs and way of live

6. good climate

7. beautiful creations of man

8. outstanding food

9. good shopping

10. exotic environment

11. historical or family ties

12. exceptional recreational activities


DAYA TARIK

(Places & Points of Interest)


Michael Peters dalam bukunya “INTERNATIONAL TOURISM” mengkategorikan daya tarik (attractions) atas :


I. Cultural

1. Sites and areas of archaelogical interest

2. Historical buildings and monuments

3. Places of historical significance

4. Museums

5. Modern culture

6. Religion

7. Political and educational institutions

II. Traditions

1. National festivals

2. Arts and handicrafts

3. Music

4. Folklore

5. Native life and customs

III. Scenic

1. Outstanding panoramas and areas of natural beauty

2. National parks

3. Wildlife

4. Flora and fauna

5. Beach resort

6. Mountain resort

IV. Entertainments

1. Participation and viewing sports

2. Amusemens and recreation parks

3. Zoos and oceanariums

4. Cinemas and theatres

5. Night life

6. Cuisine

V. Other Attractions

1. Climate
2. Health resort or spas
3. Unique attractions not available elsewhere


Sebagai orang yang bergerak dalam bidang usaha perjalanan wisata (travel business) hal-hal yang diuraikan diatas perlu mendapat perhatian kita agar dalam menyiapkan segala sesuatu yang dibutuhkan wisatawan dapat dipenuhi sesuai dengan selera mereka.


Terlihat ada kecenderungan pada sebagian karyawan biro perjalanan mendesakkan pendapat atau keinginannya kepada calon langganan/langganan ketimbang berusaha mendekati dan memberikan kepuasan sesuai dengan selera tamu. Bukan berarti ini hanya terjadi pada biro perjalanan saja, juga terjadi pada usaha-usaha lain di bidang pariwisata, misalnya di restoran-restoran, hotel, toko-toko dan sebagainya.



Careers In Travel and Tourism

Is there a place for you in the travel and tourism industry? We at GLOBAL TRAVEL BUSINESS & EDUCATION CENTRE and 1st Class Travel & Tourism Academy are certain there is. whether you're changing careers or looking for a new job, travel and tourism will offer you possibilities like no other. Here are seven reasons that a job in travel and tourism might be right for you:


1. The possibility of your achieving a fulfilling career is excellent. According to many estimates, travel and tourism has become the world's biggest industry. That means jobs - and plenty of them. And though there have been occasional downturns in the travel industry's "health", it inevitably bounces back - and quickly, too.


2. The choices you have are nearly endless. Touring, lodging, hospitality services, air travel, cruising, destination promotion, airport operations, theme parks - all these sectors and more provide hundreds of thousands of travel jobs, each unique, each potentially rewarding.


3. The perks are great. Travel professionals typically receive major discounts for their own travel. And at GLOBAL TRAVEL BUSINESS & EDUCATION CENTRE and 1st Class Travel & Tourism Academy we teach you all sorts of "insider information" that will help you travel better, even if you choose not to pursue a career in the business.


4. You can make a difference. Travel - especially leisure travel - helps people learn about other cultures, grow in their understanding of the world and fulfill their dreams. It has a more measurable effect, too, providing vital economic support to thousands of places and creating enormous economic success. In many ways, tourism has become a critical force for world peace. Few industries can make that claim.


5. You can get ahead fast. If you have talent, energy and a good work ethic, promotions will probably come swiftly to you. The travel industry provides a wide-open path for career advancement, especially in those sectors that are growing rapidly and for employees who are committed to hard work. And if you're an entrepreneur, you'll find plenty of opportunities in travel for achievement and success.


6. It's flexible. Many jobs in travel are very flexible. Tens of thousands of travel professionals now work from home or work hours that fit their personal schedules.


7. It's fun. Travel and tourism is exciting, gratifying and immensely enjoyable. As with any job, though, the demands can be challenging. But these are often offset by the simple fact that travel and tourism is one of the most wonderful industries around.


So your interest in travel and tourism is well placed. After all, what other product or service conjures such wondrous images of exotic places, exciting, activities, fascinating cultures and extraordinary challenges? It's a great business. And GLOBAL TRAVEL BUSINESS & EDUCATION CENTRE and 1st Class Travel & Tourism Academy can help you be a part of it.


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